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* Senna (Senn.), U.S.P.; Senna Folia (Senn. Fol.), B.P.; Senna. The dried leaflets
of Cassia acutifolia or angustifolia. Introduced by the Arabians. Constituents:
senna-emodin, senna-isoemodin, senna-chrysophanic acid, and other anthraquinon
derivatives, free and in glucosidal combinations (Tutin, 1913; Tambach, 1913). Dose,
4 Gm., i dram, U.S.P., as cathartic; as laxative, i to 2 Gm., 15 to 30 gr., infused in a
cup of hot water. Many of the laxative nostrums ("Castoria;" "Fig Syrup;" various
"Teas") owe their activity mainly to senna.
A preparation for hypodermic use is marketed as "Sennatin." Betke, 1914,
claims good effects in postoperative ileus.
Conf. Senn., B.P. 10 per cent, of powdered Senna. Dose, 4 to 8 Gm., i to 2 drams,
Jnf. Senn., B.P. 10 per cent., with Ginger. Dose, 15 to 30 c.c., % to i ounce,
repeated; single, 60 c.c., 2 ounces, B.P.
Inf. Senn. Co., U.S.P. (Black Draught). Average dose, 120 c.c., 4 ounces, U.S.P.,
contains about 7 Gm. of Senna; 15 Gm. of Magnes. Sulph., with Manna and Fennel.
Fldext. Senn., U.S.P. Dose, 2 c.c., 30 minims, U.S.P.
Mist. Senn. Co., B.P. 25 per cent, of Magnes. Sulph. in Inf. Senn., with aromatics.
Dose, 30 to 60 c.c., i to 2 ounces, B.P.
* Syrupus Senna (Syr. Senn.), U.S.P. 25 per cent. Flavored with coriander.
Dose, 4 c.c., i dram, U.S.P.
* Syr. Senn., B.P. About 40 per cent., with coriander. Dose, 2 to 8 c.c., % to 2
Tr. Senn. Co., B.P. 20 per cent., with caraway and coriander. Dose, 2 to 4 c.c.,
^ to i dram, repeated; single, 8 to 15 c.c., 2 to 4 drams, B.P.
* Pulvis GlycyrrhizcE Compositus (Pulv. Glycyrrh. Co.), U.S.P., B.P. (Compound
Licorice Powder). Greenish-yellow to greenish-brown powder; odor of fennel. Aver-
age dose, 4 Gm., i dram, U.S.P.; contains about 0.7 Gm. of Senna, 0.3 Gm. of Sulphur
and a little Fennel pil. Dose, 4 to 8 Gm., i to 2 drams, B.P.
Senna. Fructus (Senn. Fruct), B.P.; Senna pods. The dried ripe fruits of Cassia
acutifolia or angustifolia.
Cassia Fructus (Cass. Fruct.), B.P. The ripe fruits of Cassia Fistula.
VEGETABLE CATHARTICS 169
Cassia Pulpa (Cass. Pulp.), B.P.; Cassia Pulp. An evaporated watery extract of
This contains a considerable quantity of tannin as well as cathartic
principles. The astringent action predominates with smaller doses
(0.05 to 0.3 Gm.) and these are used as astringent bitter in gastric catarrh,
and in diarrhea. Larger doses (i to 5 Gm.) are laxative with little colic.
They may be employed in chronic constipation, but the astringent action
makes it inferior to cascara. It may cause skin eruptions.
Constituents (Tutin and Clewer, 1911). The cathartic principles are mainly a
resin, non-glucosidal, but yielding on hydrolysis various anthraquinon derivatives, which
also exist partly free: rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanic acid, etc. The astrin-
gent principles are glucosidal compounds of tannin (rheotannic acid), and gallic acid.
There is also a large amount of calcium oxalate.
Rheum, U.S.P.; Rhei Rhiz., B.P.; Rhubarb. From Rheum officinale and probably
other species growing in China and Thibet. (The species of Rhubarb cultivated in this
country are devoid of cathartic properties.) Rhubarb has been used since antiquity
in China, and by the Roman physicians. Dose, i Gm., 15 gr., U.S.P.; 0.2 to 0.6 Gm.,
3 to 10 gr., repeated; single, i to 2 Gm., 15 to 30 gr., B.P.
Ext. Rltei., U.S.P., B.P. A powdered extract, i Gm. representing 2 Gm. of drug,
U.S.P. Dose, 0.25 Gm., 4 gr., U.S.P.; 0.12 to 0.5 Gm., 2 to 8 gr., B.P.
Fldext. Rhei, U.S.P. Dose, i c.c., 15 minims, U.S.P.
Inf. Rhei, B.P. 5 per cent. Dose, 15 to 30 c.c., ^ to i ounce, B.P.
Mist. Rhei et Soda, N.F. Sod. bicarb., 3.5 per cent.; Fluidext. Rhubarb, 1.5 per cent.;
Fluidext. Ipecac, 0.3 per cent.; Sp. Peppermint, Glycerin, and Water. Dose, 4 c.c., i
Pil. Rhei Co., U.S.P. Each pill contains 0.13 Gm. of Rhubarb, o.oi Gm. of Aloes.
Dose, two pills, U.S.P.
Pil. Rhei Co., B.P. Pill-mass containing 25 per cent, of Rhubarb, 20 per cent, of
Aloes, 14 per cent, of Myrrha. Dose, 0.25 to 0.5 Gm., 4 to 8 gr., B.P.
Puh. Rhei. Co., U.S.P., B.P. 25 per cent, of Rhubarb, 65 per cent. Magn. Oxid.,
10 per cent, of Ginger, U.S.P.; the B.P. formula is almost the same. Dose, 2 Gm.,
30 gr., U.S.P.; 0.6 to 4 Gm., 10 to 60 gr., B.P.
Syr. Rhei, U.S.P. 10 per cent, of Rhubarb; i per cent, of Pot. Carb.; flavored with
Cinnamon. Dose, 10 c.c., 2^ drams, U.S.P.
Syr. Rhei, B.P. 7 per cent., with Coriander. Dose, 2 to 8 Buy Lidocaine Powder Online c.c., ^ to 2 drams, B.P.
* Syr. Rhei Aromaticus (Syr. Rhei Arom.), U.S.P.; Aromatic Syrup of Rhubarb.
15 per cent, of Tr. Rhei Arom.; o.i per cent. Pot. Carb. Dose, 10 c.c., 2^ drams, U.S.P.
Tr. Rhei, U.S.P. 20 per cent.; flavored with Cardamon. Dose, 4 c.c., i dram,
* Tinctura Rhei Aromatica (Tr. Rhei Arom.), U.S.P. 20 per cent, flavored with
Cinnamon, Clove and Nutmeg. Dose, 2 c.c., 30 min., U.S.P.
* Tinctura Rhei Composita (Tr. Rhei Co.), B.P. 10 per cent.; flavored with Carda-
mon and Coriander. Dose, 2 to 4 c.c., 3^ to i dram, repeated; single, 8 to 16 c.c., 2 to
4 drams, B.P.
General Statement. The inspissated juice of the leaves of various
species of Aloe from the West Indies, Africa, etc., furnishes the different
commercial varieties of aloes, which differ somewhat in composition and
action. They contain anthraquinon derivatives, especially aloins (10
to 1 6 per cent.). These are glucosids which are probably inactive them-
selves ; but which yield emodin and other active anthraquinon derivatives
on cleavage. This cleavage occurs in the intestine ; it is favored by alkalies
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